Three Aspects of the First Noble Truth
The First Noble Truth with its three aspects is:
1. There is suffering, dukkha.
2. Dukkha should be understood.
3. Dukkha has been [therefore 'can be'] understood.
What is the Noble Truth of
(a) Birth is suffering, (b) ageing is suffering, and (c) death is
(d) Dissociation from the loved is suffering; (e) not to get what
one wants is suffering:
(a) to (e) are the five categories of suffering affected [caused]
by clinging [or attachment to views].
This Noble Truth must be penetrated by fully understanding suffering.
This Noble Truth has been [can be] penetrated by fully understanding
Such was the vision, insight, wisdom, knowing, and light that arose
in me about things not heard before. (Samyutta Nikaya LVI, 11)
is a very skilful teaching because it is expressed in a simple formula
which is easy to remember, and it applies to everything that you
can possibly experience or do or think concerning the past, the
present or the future.
The Pali word, dukkha, means 'incapable of satisfying' or 'not
able to beat or withstand anything'; always changing, incapable
of truly fulfilling us or making us happy. The sensual world is
Contrary to our impulse instinct or first assumptions it would,
in fact, be terrible if we did find satisfaction in the sensory
world - because then we wouldn't search beyond it; we'd just be
bound to it. However, as we awaken to this dukkha, we begin to find
the way out and are no longer constantly trapped in sensory consciousness.